ANATOMY OF TPM-TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE
BRIEF HISTORY OF TPM
- Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), was developed primarily in Japan during Second World War (late 1939 to early 1945).
- World War II devastated the Japan’s industrial infrastructure.
- Japanese move toward automation which increased the efficiency rate of production, which results in many unforeseen challenges.
- In the early 1950s Japanese Companies began to focus on Preventive Maintenance techniques.
- Plant-wide preventive maintenance first adopted by Nippondenso, who is a parts supplier for Toyota.
- The birth of Total Productive Maintenance is result from use of Autonomous Maintenance combined with Preventive Maintenance techniques and a total commitment to high quality and zero losses.
WHAT IS TPM?
TPM emphasizes on maximizing the efficiency of equipment through preventative maintenance. It also emphasizes on motivating and encouraging the operator to maintain their equipment for overcoming any inefficiencies.
- Total Participation from top management to shop Floor.
- Prevention Philosophy
- Autonomous Maintenance
- Visual Controls
- Kaizen Approach
- Foundation of TPM
- Metric to evaluate the effectiveness of TPM improvements
- OEE- Overall Equipment Effectiveness
EIGHT PILLARS OF TPM
There are eight activities in the TPM implementation and these activities are also called as PILLARS OF TPM. So if any structure is having the pillars then that structure must have a strong base or the foundation.
Here in TPM, 5S methodology is considered as the foundation of the TPM. This means, to go for TPM implementation in any organization first that has to go from the journey of 5S methodology.
This 5S methodology, help in creating a well maintained and well organized organization.The activities or the pillars of TPM are as below:
- Autonomous Maintenance(JishuHozen)
- Planned Maintenance(KeikuHozen)
- Quality Integration(HinshitsuHozen)
- Focused Improvement(Kobetsu Kaizen)
- Early management
- Training and Education
- Safety , Health and Environment
- Office TPM
We have considered here one pillar as“Early Management”, this pillar is replace with various any one from the below,
- Development Management
- Early Equipment Management
- Initial Flow Control
- PM and Initial Control
- Management system for new product improvement
- Or,sometime some other name is used.
5S THE FOUNDATION OF TPM
- This Japanese methodology is based on 5 elements and alphabetS is taken from first letter of word of each element and meaning of each one of 5S is:
- Seiri – Sorting- is organization and for second time it called as Reorganization
This is sorting of items which are not adding any value in plant activity and not contributing to customer satisfaction.
- Seiton – Setting in Order – Neatness, Place for everything & everything in its Place
The items which are sorted are to be set in order as required in the process so that it will be easy to locate the items and result in saving in searching time and reduce waiting.
- Seiso – Cleanliness
Always, it is found that neat and clean area, space and work environment motivate the employee and keep high moral. This also helps in increase of productivity. Inspection after cleaning the things,area, and equipment has a different impact.
- Seiketsu – Standardization
The improvement carried out in first three steps is a lesson learned and same to be convert in standards and procedures which are helpful in making the system intact and also in horizontal deployment.
- Shitsuke – Discipline
The discipline help in sustaining the carried out activities, this can be carried out by making and follow the standard operating procedures and to ensure that audit activities are to be made part of 5S.
PILLAR 1 – Autonomous maintenance
- Autonomous maintenance (JishuHozen)
- The Japanese word for Autonomous maintenance is “JISHU HOZEN”
JISHU means Autonomous or Self performed
HOZEN means Maintenance
- The theme behind “JISHU HOZEN” is operator themselves shall maintain their machine to highest standard.
- It creates an ownership of operator with machine.
- Operator of the machine is responsible for daily cleaning and minor maintenance of the machine.
- “JISHU HOZEN” is having 7 step structured approach
- Audits are the most important activity that ensures the achievement of success of each and every step. This is done at the end of each step. Audit is carried out in 3 stages.
- First by the team which has carried out the activity,
- Second by the manager of that area and
- Third by Divisional Head along with the TPM Secretariat.
This approach ensures that the results achieved in a particular step of JishuHozen are sustained for a long time and there are no slippages in the system.
“JISHU HOZEN” 7 step structured approach
PILLAR 2 – Planned maintenance
- Planned maintenance or Preventive maintenance is a activity base on the past data of failure rates and break downs.
- During the planned maintenance inventory has to be build up for the next process or for supply to customer.
- Rest of the time daily production activity goes uninterrupted.
- Planned maintenance reduces the chances of unplanned stoppage of plant activities.
PILLAR 3 – Quality Integration/maintenance
- This pillar is concept of machine having human intelligence that is equipment are equipped with defect detection system and error preventing during production. This system reduces the cost of poor quality (COPQ) by getting quality right first time.
- Focus on reduction of number of defects.
- Production process to be equipped with error detection and prevention system.
- Focus to be given on making the production process reliable, so that product to be made as per customer requirement or as per specification, first time.
TOOLS USE ARE
- Autonomation ( Jidoka )
The concept of jidoka originated in the early 1900s when Sakichi Toyoda, founder of the Toyota Group, invented a textile loom that stopped automatically when any thread broke.
Jidoka is a Japanese word for autonomation, meaning automation with human intelligence.
- 5 Why and 1 H
- Ishikawa Diagramor called as Fishbone Diagram.
- COPQ- Cost of Poor Quality
PILLAR 4 – Focused Improvement ( Kobetsu Kaizen )
- Setup cross functional team which includes employee covering from most of the department, to gather more ideas.
- Subcommittee consists of 6 to 8 numbers of head of department as members and plant head as chairmen of subcommittee.
- Taking pilot project with formation of teams.
- Members of team/ circles participate in meeting.
- Training to be given to all on various tools use in Kobetsu Kaizen.
- Knowledge through horizontal deployment.
TOOLS USE AND REQUIREMENT OF TRAINING
- Calculation of various cost involve from input to output.
- Why-why Analysis
- P-M Analysis: A methodology that makes zero losses. This help to eliminate chronic problem which are not solve in past.
P – Phenomena (non), Physical; M – Mechanism, Relationship (Machine, Man/Woman, Material, Method) SMED-This is a system which focuses on minimizing the equipment change over time with respect to time it takes for changeover of equipment.
- Training on collection of data
- 3Ms[Muda( Waste), Muri(Overburden),Mura(Unevenness)]
- Poka Yoke
- 12 steps of Quality Circle
- QC Tools and Story Board
- 16 losses
To improve the process and productivity different 16 losses are gathered at in category of,
- Equipment related losses,
- Manpower related losses,
- Material losses and
- Energy Loss
PILLAR 5 – Early Management
Early management mainly relates to implementation of New Product Development (NPD) and Process Development through improved equipment effectiveness.
Early management is divided in two parts:
- Early Equipment Management and
- Early Product Management
- Early Equipment Management: This aims to defect free process, less maintenance cost and zero down time.
- Early Product Management: This aims to less product development time and Zero Defects through proper planning, training and development.
PILLAR 6 – Training & Education
- The main purpose of this pillar, Training and Education is to fill the gap between existing condition before implementation of TPM and requirement for TPM.
- This includes training related to various tools use in TPM and its implementation.
- Lack knowledge about the TPM among the employee result in failure.
- Training & education initiative to be taken up company wide and must include each and every one in the organization.
- Training and education help to enhance the capability and competency of the employee.
- Training and education develop the skill in four different stages, they are,
- Stage 1- Do not Know
- Stage 2- Knows the theory but cannot do
- Stage 3- Can do, but cannot teach
- Stage 4- Can do and also teach
PILLAR 7 – Safety, Health & Environment
The main purpose of this pillar 7 in TPM is to eliminate potential health and safety risks, resulting in a safer workplace and surrounding area.
- Zero accidents.
- Zero overburden (physical and mental stress and strain on employees) and
- Zero pollution.
- Zero Fire
PILLAR 8 – Office TPM
- Office TPM is applying TPM technique in administration function.
- This aim to extend TPM methodology beyond shop floor to office.
- The meaning is supporting the shop floor function from processing, purchasing and PPIC department.
Calculation of OEE- Overall Equipment Efficiency
The three components of overall equipment effectiveness metric are:
OEE = Availability X PerformanceX Quality
The detailed calculation of OEE will be taken in next article with, MTBF and MTTR.