In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as a framework for international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and coping with impacts that were, by then, inevitable.

By 1995, countries launched negotiations to strengthen the global response to climate change, and, two years later, adopted the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol legally binds developed country Parties to emission reduction targets. The Protocol’s first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. The second commitment period began on 1 January 2013 and will end in 2020.

There are now 197 Parties to the Convention and 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established on 21 March 1994. As on today total 198 countries gave their consent for the Convention, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. These 198 countries from the all over the universe are called Parties to the Convention.

The primary purpose, aim and objective of the UNFCCC are preventing the “dangerous” human interference such as greenhouse gas emissions and to protect the earth from the threat of climate change.

Conference of Parties (COP)

The Conference of Parties (COP) is the apex decision-making body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). COP members have been meeting every year since the year 1995.

The first conference (COP1) was held in 1995 in Berlin


This year twenty-seventh conference (COP27) is being held at Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt 06 Nov 2022 – 18 Nov 2022.


The logo of COP 27 comprises of the Sun, the Sun of Aten, the Horizon and the Globe. The meaning of each terms is as below,

The Sun:

The sun, is one of the most significant items Africa is known of, it’s believed to some people that its rising and setting is considered a metaphor to the cycle of life, from birth to death to re-birth. The light the sun brings together with its warmth are essential for life on Earth.

The Sun of Aten:

It is Aten represented in the sun with its rays that ends with human hands. The hands symbolize giving life and prosperity to the people and all the welfare that we are blessed with. Also the it represents the useful sun rays that earth can benefit from.

The Horizon:

The horizon represents the border line between the useful and harmless rays of the sun, what we must receive from the sun that can benefit of Earth and people, and what we must avoid.

The Globe:

The globe incorporated in the logo represents how we should contain earth and keep it preserved, balanced and safe. It also represents Africa, the continent hosting COP27 in 2022.


In the COP 21 which was held in Paris from 30 November to 12 December 2015, 196 parties adopted the “Paris Agreement,” a landmark agreement and a commitment to keep global warming below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and preferably limit warming to 1.5°C and is entered into force 4 November 2016.

To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.


Not only the temperature that is keep global warming below 2 deccenti but there shall be focus on the water management, reducing the use of fossil fuel and carbon offset scheme implementation, focus mainly on carbon. All this has to be again and againrequired to push from each local event to contribute at global level in reducing the carbon and water foot print.