1. Alternate Material

The materials which have less environmental impact and lower overall carbon emissions during production as compare to other material are categorized as alternate material.

The examples are,
  1. In India, earthen pot use for drinking tea and water place plastic gasses.
  2. Use of bamboo and silk in making fabrics
  3. Biodegradable Plastic

2. Biodegradable

The material that can be taken back to earth naturally by process of decomposition and complete breakdown in presence of microorganism like bacteria and fungi is considered as biodegradable material.

The examples are, Bamboo, Wood, jute

3. Biodiversity

The term biodiversity came for biological diversity and use in context of variability of life on the Earth. This includes the variety of different species, microorganism, animals and plants on the Earth from different sources like terrestrial, marine and desert ecosystems.

4. Biological Cycle

The biological cycle is mainly related to material that is biodegradable and returns to earth in the form of compost or other nutrient after series of changes.

5. Carbon border tax(COP27)

This is imposing an import duty on a product manufactured in a country with more lax climate rule than the one buying it.

6. Carbon foot print

A carbon footprint is the total amount of greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide and methane) that are generated by action of human being and in particular individual, organization, service, places or community.

7. Carbon leakage

The case where developed nation in effort to cut emission, impose high cost on carbon-intensive business in their own country and because of the business move to country where less stringent rules are applicable , this is called as Carbon leakage.

8. Carbon sink

Carbon sink is any system that absorbs more carbon than it emits. The main natural carbon sinks are soil, forests and oceans. The mangroves are green belt and a powerful carbon sink that absorb CO2.

9. Carbon neutral

Carbon neutrality means having a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks. Removing carbon oxide from the atmosphere and then storing it is known as carbon sequestration. In order to achieve net zero emissions, all worldwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be counterbalanced by carbon sequestration orthe reduction of carbon dioxide equivalents [CO2e] to the level equals to carbon foot print is a “Carbon Neutral”.

10. Carbon offset

Carbon offset is any activity that compensates for the emission of greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide and methane, measured in carbon dioxide equivalents [CO2e])which can be perform elsewhere.

The example of compensates for the emissionelsewhere:
  1. reduction in GHG emissions by one or the combination of reduce, reuse, recreate and recycle waste at source or an increase in carbon storage through land restoration or
  2. the planting of trees elsewhere by investing in plantation project for balancing carbon foot print.
  3. Other can invest in other projects solar power and similar other.
Carbon offsets can be bought, sold, or traded as part of a carbon market.

11. Carbon Credit

A carbon credit is a kind of permit that represents 1 ton of carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere. The Carbon credit is set permissible limit to organization and a single credit represents 1 tonne of CO2e (or Carbon dioxide equivalent) that the company is allowed to emit.

Carbon credits only exist in markets with Cap & Trade regulations. The limit, or cap are the level of emissionsof carbon dioxide from industry activities and trade is market for industry to buy and sell.

Carbon credits are not same as carbon offset.

12. Circular economy

Circular economy helps in keeping products and materials in use for as long as possible and this is carried out by designing the product which is more durable , can be repaired, can be recycled,can be refurbish and so life cycle of product extended. It focuses on reducing the waste and creating value at each stage of life cycle.

13. Climate Adaption

Climate adaption is climate change adaption where require actions are taken to reduce the negative effect of climate change by taking advantage of new opportunities in area of ecological, social, or economic system by adjustment in response to climate impact.

14. Cradle to Cradle

Michael Braungart and William McDonough in their book “Cradle to Cradle — Remaking the Way We Make Things” mentioned about “Cradle to Cradle”.

This concept categorise all the material existed in the “technical” or “biological” nutrients / cycle and believes in any raw material not to be thrown but reuse indefinitely.

15. Cradle to Grave

In general cradle represents the start of life and grave, end of life. But here this term use in relation of business perspective and impact of the overall business on the environment from extraction of raw material to use of raw material, convert it into product and disposal/ recycling in any form.

The cradle to grave management is an approach for analysis and also a waste management approach.

16. Depletion of natural resources

The availability of natural resourceson the earth is consumed in faster way as compare to its generation or replenishment is a state of depletion of natural resources.The natural resources are categorized in two form and they are renewable resources and non-renewable resources.

17. Eco Design

Eco design is a concept or an approach where environmental impact is considered in designing any product or services form its developmental stage to disposals.

18. Eco friendly

The product or service which does not harm to environment during its life span or it is safe for the environment.

19. Eco living

The lifestyle of human being or society which strive for protection and preservation of environment by considering the negative impact of climate change and adopting initiatives such as save water, power ,biodiversity etc.

20. Ecological stability

Ecological stability is ability of ecosystem or environment to maintain a study state. That is, it resists changing in condition of ecological disturbance.

21. Ecological balance

Ecological balance is a habitat where harmonious coexistence found between human being, animals, plants, microorganism and overall environmental ecosystem.

22. Efficient disposal

The disposal of waste material by considering its impact on the environment by use of waste management, engineered landfills and considering the reuse and recycle aspect of material.

23. Energy efficient

Energy efficient term use in context of gadgets/equipment which consume electric power and energy efficient are those gadgets/equipment which consume less energy to produce same output.

24. Environmental impact

An environmental impact is state of change to the environment in positive or negative way may be from the activities of human, industrialization or any social reason.

25. Geoengineering

Geoengineering or called as climate engineering is carried out to reverse the impact of climate change or to reduce the greenhouse gases by means of interference in the Earth’s natural system.

26. Greenhouse gases

The gases that trap heat in atmosphere are called as greenhouse gases.These greenhouse gases are Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas, other gases are Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide(N2O) and Fluorinated gasessuch as Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and nitrogen trifluoride.

27. Green product

A product which is design and made by considering its less impact on environment and sustainable throughout the life of product and also at end of life is called as Green Product.The example are, Electric vehicle, Organic food,Product in which solar energy use, etc.

28. Green technology

A technology which consider environmental aspect and sustainability during designing, in making of the product and its end of life, overall which restrict the adverse effect on environment.

29. Lightweighting

Light weighting from the view of sustainability is to reduce the weight of product by change in design or use of light weight material whose strength is not compromisedor overall design anddoes not contribute adverse effect on product but at same time it contribute in achieving sustainability by less greenhouse gases emission.

30. Linear Economy

Linear economy is term related to extracting of the raw material from earth and converts it into product, use it and throw it as waste. This results in waste generation, pollution and carbon emission.

31. Long product lifespan

The life of product form when it was produce to the end of its life is a product lifespan. And this lifespan to be long as far as possible so that reproduction can be minimized and contribute in sustainability.

32. Long term thinking

The thinking about future of environment considering the concepts of sustainability, impact of climate change and its mitigation is a way of long term thinking.

33. Low impact material

The material which has its influence on environmental sustainability is less as compared to other materials when in use, which help in overall reduction in GHG emission.

34. Net Zero

Net zero is a balance between amount of Green Houses Gases produce by human activities and amount of Green House Gases removed from the atmosphere.

35. Organic

The word organic is use in context of method of agriculture and or food farming. So, the food which produced with use of only natural materials /chemicals and there is no use of artificial chemical in the form is pesticides and fertilizer is organic and food called as organic food.The examples of natural materials arepoultry droppings, compost, cattle manures,

36. Recover

Recover(ing) wrt to sustainability is transforming any waste, by product and unusable things in sustainable or useful product.

37. Recycle- Up cycle- Down cycle

When the thrown away material is recycled and fetch higher value it is Up-Cycle and where recycle result in lower value after recycled, is Down Cycle.

38. Recycled material

The recycle materials are products which are made from the material which are supposed to be thrown away. By collecting such material (e.g. Plastic, Paper, Glass etc) and processing it to make new product called as recycled material.

39. Redesign

Redesigning is designing the material or end product by changing its raw material, ingredient or changing the appearance and function by considering the environmental sustainability, GHG emission.

40. Reduce

Reduce is amount of waste we generate that can be curtail or restrain by various means.

41. Reforestation

The existing land of forest of which forest has been destroyed,may be of any reason like wildfire, drought etc where again plantation of trees carried out with aim to renew is reforestation.

42. Refurbish

Refurbishing is a method to improve from existing status to its sustainable use.

43. Refuse

Refuse can be simply put as saying NO to unsustainable product, non-environmental friendly material. Example, refuse the single use plastic in other word SAY NO to Single use plastic.

44. Remanufacturer

A remanufacturer is a company that takes used or damaged products and repairs, refurbishes, and re-sells them as new products, reducing waste and the need for raw materials. This supports sustainability efforts by reducing the environmental impact of producing new items.

45. Repair

In general repair meaning to correct the old item/damage item and to make it usable. Whereas when considering sustainability the thought process behind repair is to use the item as long as it can be used to before if dispose of.

46. Repurpose

Repurposing is the practice of using an existing item in a different way to reduce waste and promote sustainability. It is a form of creative reuse that can extend the life of an item and reduce the need for additional resources.

47. Resources

Resources are materials, energy, knowledge, and services that are available to support sustainable development.

48. Restore

Restore is a concept used in sustainability that focuses on the repair and revitalization of natural systems that have been damaged or degraded due to human activity. It is often done through the introduction of native species, the removal of invasive species, and the reintroduction of traditional land management practices.

49. Rethink

Rethink is about thinking to use, to design, to consume, in very different way and critically so that our action could not harm negatively on environment.

50. Reuse

Reuse is using the product / material more than once.

51. Rewilding

Rewilding is related to restoring the piece of land to its original environment, which include introduction or reintroduction of plant and animals and conserving it to its natural level.

52. Sustainability

The sustainability include three types of sustainability and they are

  1. Economic Sustainability
  2. Social Sustainability
  3. Environmental Sustainability

Whereas Sustainability form point of view of ecological balances, it is action from the individuals of our society to act for avoiding the depletion of natural resources considering the balance between economic growth and environment.

53. Sustainable consumption

The use of material, product or any service in such a way that it reduces/ minimized its impact on environment.

54. Technical Cycle

The concept of any cycle like biological cycle and/or technical cycle is connected with how any product and/or material can be kept in circulation.

In technical cycle product/material can be kept in circulation by using the concept of Reuse, Repaired, Recycled and Remanufacture.

55. Upgrade

Upgrading any product consist of making it more efficient to use with extended life.

56. Waste prevention

Waste prevention starts from concept of not generating/ minimizing / reducing any waste anywhere in the society that may be in home or in office, etc in everyday life.

57. Design for disassembly

Design for disassembly is related mostly with the end-of-life possibility and opportunity on how a product or disassembled part may be design so that it fully complete the technical cycle.

58. Water foot print

Water is precious and whatever we use/consume in our daily life, there is water. And measure of this water consume or use to produce these goods is our Water foot print.

The water foot print has three parts and they are Green, Blue and Gray water foot print.

Green water is use by plants and return back to environment.

Blue water,is the water which is found in lake, river use for drinking and in manufacturing /service industries.

Gray water is water which is already used and having impurity and required to purify to return to atmosphere.