QUALITY IN MANUFACTURING
Now a day, I am in very much in fond of KANO MODEL. This is simply a model for customer satisfaction, but in practice it help to understand the VOC (Voice of Customer) Dr. Noriaki Kano is a professor, lecturer, writer and consultant but he is well known for his model which is famous as a Kano Model and in fact he is student of Kaoru Ishikawa.
When we are discussing about Quality in Manufacturing ,it is important to note that survival of any industry is depend on satisfying the need of the customer and this need of the customer are to be satisfy in way called “Just in Time” and this all to be provided in affordable price.
So, there shall be very much balance between the cost and quality of product supplied. Quality of product, to be perfectly base on the Voice of Customer, so that exact need of customer can be known and customer can be made satisfy.
At this juncture Kano Model plays the important role. After doing his own research he developed 3 categories of customer Requirement as guidance and they are:
- Basic (Dissatisfiers),
- Performance (Satisfiers) and
- Excitement (Delighters)
In any manufacturing quality of the product is important and this should not only satisfy the customer but delight the customer and customer should show his loyalty not only towards the product but also towards that organization.”Customer Loyalty “is a term used to describe the behavior of customer who exhibits a high level of satisfaction, conduct repeat business or provide referrals and testimonials.
The loyalty can be measure by method called as “Net Promoters Score (NPS)”.NPS is a single question survey. The Question is “How likely are you to recommend our product to a friend or collogue?”
So, once we know the Voice of the Customer we can plan to produce the better quality of product by designing the required manufacturing process. Once the manufacturing process has been finalized various efforts to be taken to stabilized the process and monitored the process through the various SQC methods.
Now a day to monitor the consistency in process is made easy with the help of state of art technology where calculation part are carried out by the software only. But care to be taken where manual intervention is there in machine as there is chance of variation in the process and these variations in process is reasons for generating the defects in manufacturing process.
If we understand that any process generating the defects means there is loss and immediate corrective action is required to plug the generation of defects. In such cases we should go for the lean methodology, “Waste Elimination” called as “Muda”. Any nature of defects is a waste and in such cases either we have to scrap the product or required to rework or such rework is again a waste full activity.
To totally elimination of any variation in the process we should empower the employee and this not only result in improvement but also help the faster delivery to the customer and this can be achieved the training of the employee and eliminating the down time. Here we can take the use of “KAIZEN” concept which helps to eliminate problems at their source and these problems are solving on the daily basis.
In manufacturing process besides endeavors for reducing the variation in process one area which is not under focus is ” Measurement System Analysis” and “Measurement of Uncertainty”. Both these methodologies are different of nature but in some sense they are interrelated and they must be given focused to improve the quality of product where measurement is involved.
By the way,we can see that the three categories of customer requirement as developed by Dr Kano, if fulfill, customer will get the right quality of product as per his need, definitely supported by different other tools.
There is another perspective on which I am thinking from long and sharing now as
Model for relationship between Product Quality Level (PQL), manufacturing process Capability (MPC) Productivity and profit. This is because; quality product can be manufacture with capability of that process. This can be very well explaining with the graph:
We can see that at point “A” Manufacturing process capability (MPC) is low and so Product quality level (PQL) is also low similarly if we go further at point “B” Manufacturing process capability (MPC) is high and so Product quality level (PQL) is also on high. This MPC is improving either by innovative ideas or by initiating state of art technology, so that there is improvement in product quality level. At the same time if we see graph at point ”D” there is increase in profit and also productivity.
But,area in rectangle at start of graph there is always threat on bottom line (TBL) of organization as there is always chance of defective product generation and result in scrap, rework.
So, in conclusion , though there is high level of quality system being maintained , there is always need to look for improvement in MPC with use of innovative ideas or with use of state of art technology.